Endothelium-derived factors as paracrine mediators of prostate cancer progression

Prostate. 2000 Jun 15;44(1):77-87. doi: 10.1002/1097-0045(20000615)44:1<77::aid-pros10>3.0.co;2-g.


Background: Vascular endothelium represents a complex network of cells producing a large number of active substrates affecting physiologic, metabolic, and immunologic properties of the whole organism, as well as particular organs or tissues. The potential influence of endothelium-derived paracrine factors on prostate cancer progression has only begun to be examined.

Methods: This review summarizes recent literature on endothelium-derived factors, including vasoactive agents, peptide growth factors, cytokines, and colony-stimulating factors, involved in the development and progression of prostate cancer.

Results: Endothelial cells produce an array of active substrates, many of which have been shown to influence prostate cancer growth. Available data demonstrate the positive impact of such molecules as endothelin-1, basic FGF, TGF-beta, IL-6, and IL-8 on prostate cancer progression. Many other endothelium-derived factors NO, IGF, PDGF, IL-1, G-CSF, and GM-CSF (Nitric Oxide, Insulin-Like Growth Factor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor, Interleukin-1, Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor, and Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor) are, at best, implicated in prostate cancer growth, and in most cases support cancer progression.

Conclusions: A better understanding of endothelium-derived factors, as paracrine mediators of prostate carcinogenesis and progression, should aid in the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cell Division
  • Colony-Stimulating Factors / pharmacology
  • Endothelins / pharmacology
  • Endothelium, Vascular / physiology*
  • Fibroblast Growth Factors / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-1 / pharmacology
  • Interleukin-6 / pharmacology
  • Interleukin-8 / pharmacology
  • Male
  • Nitric Oxide / pharmacology
  • Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / physiology
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Somatomedins / pharmacology
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / pharmacology


  • Colony-Stimulating Factors
  • Endothelins
  • Interleukin-1
  • Interleukin-6
  • Interleukin-8
  • Platelet-Derived Growth Factor
  • Somatomedins
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Fibroblast Growth Factors