Background: Vascular endothelium represents a complex network of cells producing a large number of active substrates affecting physiologic, metabolic, and immunologic properties of the whole organism, as well as particular organs or tissues. The potential influence of endothelium-derived paracrine factors on prostate cancer progression has only begun to be examined.
Methods: This review summarizes recent literature on endothelium-derived factors, including vasoactive agents, peptide growth factors, cytokines, and colony-stimulating factors, involved in the development and progression of prostate cancer.
Results: Endothelial cells produce an array of active substrates, many of which have been shown to influence prostate cancer growth. Available data demonstrate the positive impact of such molecules as endothelin-1, basic FGF, TGF-beta, IL-6, and IL-8 on prostate cancer progression. Many other endothelium-derived factors NO, IGF, PDGF, IL-1, G-CSF, and GM-CSF (Nitric Oxide, Insulin-Like Growth Factor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor, Interleukin-1, Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor, and Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor) are, at best, implicated in prostate cancer growth, and in most cases support cancer progression.
Conclusions: A better understanding of endothelium-derived factors, as paracrine mediators of prostate carcinogenesis and progression, should aid in the development of novel therapeutic strategies.
Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.