Rab proteins form the largest branch of the Ras superfamily of GTPases. They are localized to the cytoplasmic face of organelles and vesicles involved in the biosynthetic/secretory and endocytic pathways in eukaryotic cells. It is now well established that Rab proteins play an essential role in the processes that underlie the targeting and fusion of transport vesicles with their appropriate acceptor membranes. They perform this task through interactions with a wide variety of effector molecules. In this review, we illustrate recent advances in the field of Rab GTPases, taking as examples two proteins involved in the biosynthetic pathway, Rab3 and Rab6.