The effect of smoking on postoperative nausea and vomiting

Anaesthesia. 2000 Jun;55(6):540-4. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2044.2000.01474.x.


In an attempt to quantify the postoperative effects of smoking, 327 consecutive patients undergoing arthroscopic day case knee surgery were given a standard anaesthetic consisting of an intravenous induction with propofol and fentanyl followed by inhalational maintenance using isoflurane in an oxygen and nitrous oxide mixture. Pre-operatively, patients were asked inter alia to give details of social smoking habits. Postoperatively, patients were given standard analgesic and anti-emetic drugs. Prior to discharge patients were asked to give details of postoperative nausea and vomiting together with details of the severity of postoperative pain. There were 85 smokers and 242 nonsmokers. Of the 327 patients, a total of 42 (13%) complained of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Of the smokers, only 6% complained of postoperative nausea and vomiting in contrast to 15% of the nonsmokers (p < 0.05). It is postulated that enzyme induction is the most likely reason for this anti-emetic effect. Possible ways in which this clinically beneficial mechanism can be utilised to improve outcome after anaesthesia are discussed.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Ambulatory Surgical Procedures
  • Anesthesia, General
  • Arthroscopy
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Knee Joint / surgery
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pain, Postoperative
  • Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting / epidemiology*
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking*