During the past three decades, many studies have been conducted to determine the precise role of eicosanoids in colorectal physiology and pathophysiology. This research has increased our understanding of bioactive lipid signaling, and may contribute to the development of more effective therapeutic modalities for digestive diseases in the future. The purpose of this report is to provide a brief overview of the role of eicosanoids in the colon and rectum. This information has been organized according to both functional and disease-related categories. The role of eicosanoids in colonic secretion, motility, inflammatory bowel disease, and colorectal neoplasia will be discussed.