Vascular disease and Alzheimer's disease are both common disorders, in particular among elderly subjects. Therefore, it can be expected that the joint occurrence of these two disorders is not a rare phenomenon. In recent years, evidence is increasing that the two may be more closely linked than just by chance. Epidemiological studies have suggested that risk factors for vascular disease and stroke are associated with cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease, and that the presence of cerebrovascular disease intensifies the presence and severity of the clinical symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. In this paper, current knowledge on the relation between vascular risk factors and risk indicators and Alzheimer's disease will be reviewed.