Anti-inflammatory actions of 15-deoxy-delta 12,14-prostaglandin J2 and troglitazone: evidence for heat shock-dependent and -independent inhibition of cytokine-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase expression

Diabetes. 2000 Mar;49(3):346-55. doi: 10.2337/diabetes.49.3.346.


In this study, the anti-inflammatory actions of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma agonists 15-deoxy-delta 12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15-d-delta 12,14-PGJ2) and troglitazone have been examined. Treatment of RAW 264.7 cells and CD-1 mouse peritoneal macrophages with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) + interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) results in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) expression, increased production of nitric oxide, and the release of IL-1. In a concentration-dependent manner, 15-d-delta 12,14-PGJ2 inhibits each of these proinflammatory actions of LPS + IFN-gamma, with half-maximal inhibition at approximately 0.5 microg/ml and complete inhibition at 1-5 microg/ml. The inhibitory actions of 15-d-delta 12,14-PGJ2 on LPS + IFN-gamma-induced inflammatory events are not associated with the inhibition of iNOS enzymatic activity or macrophage cell death, but appear to result from an inhibition of iNOS and IL-1 transcription. In addition, the anti-inflammatory actions of 15-d-delta 12,14-PGJ2 are not limited to peritoneal macrophages, as 15-d-delta 12,14-PGJ2 prevents TNF-alpha + LPS-induced resident islet macrophage expression of IL-1beta and beta-cell expression of iNOS stimulated by the local release of IL-1 in rat islets. 15-d-delta 12,14-PGJ2 appears to be approximately 10-fold more effective at inhibiting resident islet macrophage activation (in response to TNF + LPS) than IL-1-induced nitrite production by beta-cells. Two mechanisms appear to be associated with the antiinflammatory actions of both 15-d-delta 12,14-PGJ2 and troglitazone: 1) the direct inhibition of cytokine- and endotoxin-stimulated iNOS and IL-1 transcription; and 2) the inhibition of IL-1 signaling, an event associated with PPAR-gamma agonist-induced activation of the heat shock response (as assayed by heat shock protein 70 expression). These findings indicate that the PPAR-gamma agonists, troglitazone and the J series of prostaglandins, are potent anti-inflammatory agents that prevent cytokine- and endotoxin-stimulated activation of peripheral and resident tissue macrophages and cytokine-induced iNOS expression by beta-cells by the inhibition of transcriptional activation and induction of the heat shock response.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology*
  • Cell Line
  • Chromans / pharmacology*
  • Cytokines / pharmacology
  • Hot Temperature
  • Interferon-gamma / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Interferon-gamma / pharmacology
  • Interleukin-1 / metabolism
  • Lipopolysaccharides / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Lipopolysaccharides / pharmacology
  • Macrophages, Peritoneal / metabolism
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred Strains
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
  • Nitrites / metabolism
  • Prostaglandin D2 / analogs & derivatives*
  • Prostaglandin D2 / pharmacology
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Shock / enzymology
  • Thiazoles / pharmacology*
  • Thiazolidinediones*
  • Troglitazone


  • 15-deoxy-delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J2
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Chromans
  • Cytokines
  • Interleukin-1
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Nitrites
  • Thiazoles
  • Thiazolidinediones
  • Interferon-gamma
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
  • Nos2 protein, mouse
  • Nos2 protein, rat
  • Troglitazone
  • Prostaglandin D2