Proteasome inhibitor induced gene expression profiles reveal overexpression of transcriptional regulators ATF3, GADD153 and MAD1

Oncogene. 2000 Jun 8;19(25):2913-20. doi: 10.1038/sj.onc.1203606.


The ubiquitin/proteasome pathway has been implicated in a wide variety of cellular processes and the number of substrates degraded by the proteasome is impressive. Most prominently, the stability of a large number of transcription factors is regulated by ubiquitination. To elucidate pathways regulated by the proteasome, gene expression profiles were generated, comparing changes of mRNA expression of 7900 genes from the UniGene collection upon exposure of cells to the proteasome inhibitors Lactacystin, Lactacystin-beta-lactone or MG132 by means of microarray based cDNA hybridization. The three profiles were very similar, but differed significantly from a gene expression profile generated with the histone deacetylase inhibitor Trapoxin A, indicating that the observed alterations were indeed due to proteasome inhibition. Two of the most prominently induced genes encoded the growth arrest and DNA damage inducible protein Gadd153 and the activating transcription factor ATF3, both transcription factors of the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) family. A third gene encoded for the transcriptional repressor and c-Myc antagonist Mad1. Our results suggest that proteasome inhibition leads to upregulation of specific members of transcription factor families controlling cellular stress response and proliferation. Oncogene (2000).

MeSH terms

  • Base Sequence
  • Cysteine Endopeptidases / drug effects*
  • Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • DNA Primers
  • Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects*
  • Humans
  • Multienzyme Complexes / drug effects*
  • Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism*
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured
  • Up-Regulation


  • Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors
  • DNA Primers
  • Multienzyme Complexes
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Transcription Factors
  • Cysteine Endopeptidases
  • Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex