Gadd45 family proteins are coactivators of nuclear hormone receptors

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000 May 27;272(1):193-8. doi: 10.1006/bbrc.2000.2760.


Gadd45 family genes encode nuclear acidic proteins composed of Gadd45, MyD118, and CR6. Sequence analysis showed that Gadd45 family proteins (Gadd45, MyD118, and CR6) contain LXXLL signature motifs considered necessary and sufficient for the binding of several coactivators to nuclear receptors. Interaction between Gadd45 or CR6 and RXR alpha was confirmed by a two-hybrid test in yeast. Results from a series of GST pulldown assays showed that these Gadd45 family proteins interact with several nuclear hormone receptors including RXR alpha, RAR alpha, ER alpha, PPAR alpha, PPAR beta, and PPAR gamma2 in vitro. Interaction between Gadd45 family proteins and nuclear hormone receptors resulted in modest activation of transactivating function of nuclear hormone receptors in reporter systems. When fused to DNA binding domain of GAL4, Gadd45 and CR6 activated the UAS-mediated transcription in mammalian cells. These results suggest that Gadd45 family proteins bind to nuclear hormone receptors and act as nuclear coactivators.

MeSH terms

  • 3T3 Cells
  • Amino Acid Motifs
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Antigens, Differentiation / genetics
  • Antigens, Differentiation / metabolism
  • Carrier Proteins / genetics
  • Carrier Proteins / metabolism
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Fungal Proteins / genetics
  • Fungal Proteins / metabolism
  • Humans
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Mice
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Protein Binding
  • Proteins / genetics
  • Proteins / metabolism*
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / genetics
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / metabolism*
  • Receptors, Retinoic Acid / genetics
  • Receptors, Retinoic Acid / metabolism
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / genetics
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / metabolism
  • Retinoid X Receptors
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins*
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Two-Hybrid System Techniques


  • Antigens, Differentiation
  • Carrier Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Fungal Proteins
  • GADD45 protein
  • GADD45B protein, human
  • GAL4 protein, S cerevisiae
  • Gadd45b protein, mouse
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Proteins
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear
  • Receptors, Retinoic Acid
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Retinoid X Receptors
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
  • Transcription Factors