Mechanisms, ecological consequences and agricultural implications of tri-trophic interactions

Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2000 Aug;3(4):329-35. doi: 10.1016/s1369-5266(00)00089-3.


Recent research bridging mechanistic and ecological approaches demonstrates that plant attributes can affect herbivores, natural enemies of herbivores, and their interaction. Such effects may be genetically variable among plants and/or induced in individual plants by herbivore attack, and are mediated by primary plant attributes (i.e. nutritional quality and physical structure) and defense-related products (i.e. secondary chemicals and plant volatiles), and may be modified by human activity (e.g. by the introduction of Bacillus thuringiensis). The study of tri-trophic interactions is important in order to understand natural species interactions and to manipulate these interactions in pest control.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bacillus thuringiensis / genetics
  • Bacillus thuringiensis / physiology
  • Biotechnology
  • Crops, Agricultural / drug effects
  • Crops, Agricultural / growth & development
  • Crops, Agricultural / microbiology
  • Crops, Agricultural / parasitology*
  • Ecology*
  • Host-Parasite Interactions* / drug effects
  • Insecta / physiology
  • Pest Control, Biological
  • Plant Diseases / genetics
  • Plant Diseases / microbiology
  • Plant Diseases / parasitology*
  • Plant Growth Regulators / pharmacology
  • Plant Growth Regulators / physiology


  • Plant Growth Regulators