The main objective of this study was to analyze the risks associated with occupational exposures in an industrializing country where lung cancer is the primary neoplastic cause of death in men. A full occupational history was collected through interviewing 199 men with lung cancer and 393 control subjects. Exposure to arsenic, asbestos, chromium, dust, nickel, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons was assessed by means of a job-exposure matrix. Elevated odds ratios were observed for employment in the alcoholic beverages industry (5.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1 to 23.1), sawmills and wood mills (4.8; 95% CI, 1.2 to 19.0), water transport (3.3; 95% CI, 1.1 to 12.1), and chemicals/plastics manufacturers (1.9; 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.3). A small, non-significant increased risk was observed after long-term exposure to arsenic and chromium, with a dose-response for chromium. Although some of the present results may result from chance, most are consistent with those of previous investigations in other countries.