Food deprivation and adrenalectomy are associated with low concentrations of leptin in blood and the absence of obesity. Because leptin is known to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) by a saturable transport system, we examined whether fasting and adrenalectomy (ADX) also act at the BBB. Multiple-time regression analysis showed that fasting, but not ADX, significantly decreased the entry of leptin into mouse brain. After 3 days of food deprivation, the influx of leptin became indistinguishable from that of the vascular control (albumin); 5 h of refeeding significantly reversed this reduced rate of influx. Thus, the results indicate that the BBB provides a dynamic site for the regulation of physiological processes involving leptin.