Anemia management using erythropoietin and intravenous iron supplementation has improved the lives of many patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). However, because iron is an essential nutrient for microorganisms, it is plausible that iron supplementation may promote infection. This review examines the literature on the connection between iron and infection, with a focus on the relevance of these data to hemodialysis patients treated according to the National Kidney Foundation--Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF-DOQI) Guidelines for Anemia Management. The current evidence does not show a cause-and-effect relationship between intravenous iron administration and an increased susceptibility to infection in hemodialysis patients. Therefore, the author does not recommend changing current iron management practices in ESRD patients because of concern about infectious risk.