Neurotoxicity of glutamate in chick telencephalon neurons: reduction of toxicity by preincubation with carbachol, but not by the endogenous fatty acid amides anandamide and palmitoylethanolamide

Arch Toxicol. 2000 May;74(3):161-4. doi: 10.1007/s002040050669.


Exposure of chick telencephalon neurons in serum-free primary culture to glutamate produced a concentration-dependent cell toxicity as seen by an increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release that was blocked by the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist dizocilpine and was reduced by preincubation with the cholinergic agonist carbachol. Preincubation with a threshold concentration of NMDA did not prevent glutamate toxicity, suggesting that chick NMDA receptors do not desensitize in the manner reported for their rodent counterparts. Neither anandamide (arachidonyl ethanolamide, AEA) nor palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) was able to prevent the neurotoxicity produced by prolonged glutamate incubation, even under conditions in which the metabolism of the compounds by fatty acid amide hydrolase or AEA cellular uptake was blocked. It is concluded that treatments reported as granting neuroprotection towards glutamate toxicity in rodent primary neuronal cultures do not necessarily show the same properties in the chick.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amides
  • Animals
  • Arachidonic Acids / pharmacology*
  • Carbachol / pharmacology*
  • Chick Embryo
  • Dizocilpine Maleate / pharmacology
  • Drug Antagonism
  • Endocannabinoids
  • Ethanolamines
  • Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists / pharmacology*
  • Glutamic Acid / toxicity*
  • L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / metabolism
  • N-Methylaspartate / pharmacology
  • Neurons / drug effects*
  • Neurons / metabolism
  • Neurons / pathology
  • Neuroprotective Agents / pharmacology*
  • Palmitic Acids / pharmacology*
  • Polyunsaturated Alkamides
  • Rats
  • Species Specificity
  • Telencephalon / drug effects*
  • Telencephalon / embryology
  • Telencephalon / metabolism
  • Telencephalon / pathology


  • Amides
  • Arachidonic Acids
  • Endocannabinoids
  • Ethanolamines
  • Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists
  • Neuroprotective Agents
  • Palmitic Acids
  • Polyunsaturated Alkamides
  • Glutamic Acid
  • N-Methylaspartate
  • Dizocilpine Maleate
  • palmidrol
  • Carbachol
  • L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
  • anandamide