Purpose: To assess the contribution of poly (adenosine 5'-diphosphate ribose) synthetase (PARS) to the development of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury and vascular failure in pigs.
Materials and methods: Four groups of anesthetized, paralyzed, and mechanically ventilated domestic white pigs. Group 1 served as control, whereas Escherichia coli LPS (20 microg/kg/h) was continuously infused in group 2. Group 3 received 20 mg/kg injection of 3-aminobenzamide (a selective inhibitor of PARS activity) 15 minutes before LPS infusion. Only 3-aminobenzamide and not LPS was injected in group 4. All animals were examined for 180 minutes. Systemic and pulmonary hemodynamics and lung mechanics were measured during the experimental period. Lung wet/dry ratio, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein levels and cell counts and lung nitrotyrosine (footprint of peroxynitrite) immunostaining were also measured in a few animals.
Results: LPS infusion evoked a progressive decline in systemic arterial pressure, a small increase in cardiac output, and biphasic elevation of pulmonary arterial pressure. Lung compliance declined progressively, whereas lung and total respiratory resistance rose significantly after LPS infusion. Prominent nitrotyrosine immunostaining was detected around small airways and pulmonary endothelium of LPS-infused animals. No significant changes in lung wet/dry ratio and BAL protein levels and cell counts were produced by LPS infusion. Pretreatment with 3-aminobenzamide did not alter the systemic and pulmonary hemodynamic responses to LPS infusion but eliminated the rise in pulmonary and total respiratory resistance.
Conclusions: We concluded that PARS activation plays an important role in the changes of lung mechanics associated with LPS-induced acute lung injury but had no role in vascular failure.