A survey of vitamin A and D contents of fortified fluid milk in Ontario

J Dairy Sci. 2000 Jun;83(6):1210-6. doi: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(00)74986-1.


High performance liquid chromatographic methods for measuring the concentration of vitamins A and D in fluid milk were validated and used to assess the level of these nutrients in Ontario retail milk samples. Thirteen and fifteen fortified milk samples were tested for vitamins A and D, respectively. Repeatability relative standard deviation values for vitamins A and D in milk were generally less than 10%. Recoveries varied from 87 to 107%. Vitamin D results indicated that only 20% of skim, 40% of 2% fat milk, and 20% of whole milk contained the recommended levels, whereas 46% of skim, and 77% of 2% fat milk had the required levels of vitamin A. The results indicate that vitamin level varies widely in Ontario retail milk.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Canada
  • Chromatography, Liquid / methods
  • Food, Fortified / standards*
  • Humans
  • Milk / chemistry*
  • Milk / standards
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Vitamin A / analysis*
  • Vitamin D / analysis*


  • Vitamin A
  • Vitamin D