Background: Intravascular fluid loss contributes to pancreatitis-associated multiple organ dysfunction and is thus a major target for therapy in this life-threatening disease.
Aim: To evaluate intravascular fluid loss and extravascular fluid sequestration together with cardiorespiratory and renal function in a well-established rat model of severe acute pancreatitis (AP) and to investigate the effect of fluid resuscitation with and without endothelin receptor A blockade on these parameters.
Method: Induction of AP in rats by a standardized bile salt infusion into the pancreatic duct and intravenous cerulein hyperstimulation. Six hours after AP induction, animals were randomized into 4 groups to receive (1) no therapy; (2) 4 ml/kg/h Ringer's lactate (RL) i.v.; (3) 8 ml/kg/h RL i.v., or (4) 4 ml/kg/h RL plus an endothelin receptor antagonist. Target parameters measured before and after AP induction and during the 24-hour observation period included: mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, hematocrit, arterial blood gases, urine production, ascites and pleural effusions.
Results: After 6 h, all animals presented with severe hemoconcentration (hematocrit >57%) and oliguria (<0.5 ml/6 h). Cardiorespiratory parameters were within the normal range. Up to 12 h after AP induction, animals without therapy had an increased hematocrit and oliguria and developed metabolic acidosis. Animals receiving fluid resuscitation had a significant drop in hematocrit and maintained compensated blood gas values. A significant increase in urine production was only observed in animals given 8 mg/kg/h RL. Between 12 and 24 h, urine production significantly increased with fluid resuscitation and respiratory parameters stabilized except for animals treated with 8 ml/kg/h RL which developed arterial hypoxia and hypercapnia.
Conclusions: Intravascular fluid loss and extravascular fluid sequestration together with decreased urine production characterize the early phase of this model of severe AP. Massive fluid resuscitation necessary for increasing urine output may lead to respiratory distress. Reduction of intravascular fluid loss by endothelin receptor blockade is associated with improved renal and respiratory function.
Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel