The erbB2 gene, which encodes a transmembrane growth factor receptor, is overexpressed in approximately 30% of breast cancers. Overexpressing this gene makes breast cancers resistant to certain chemotherapeutic agents. In this article, we review what is known about ErbB2-mediated chemoresistance and the controversies surrounding it. We also examine the antiapoptotic function of erbB2 as one of the molecular mechanisms of ErbB2-mediated Taxol resistance and describe several emerging strategies for overcoming intrinsic ErbB2-mediated chemoresistance. Finally, we discuss future avenues for studies of chemosensitivity in ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancers that may lead to the development of effective biology-based treatment strategies.