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Review
, 11 (6), 207-11

Gene Regulation by Thyroid Hormone

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Review

Gene Regulation by Thyroid Hormone

Y Wu et al. Trends Endocrinol Metab.

Abstract

Regulation of gene expression by thyroid hormones (T3, T4) is mediated via thyroid hormone receptors (TRs). TRs are DNA-binding transcription factors that function as molecular switches in response to ligand. TRs can activate or repress gene transcription depending on the promoter context and ligand-binding status. In most cases, in the absence of ligand, TRs interact with a corepressor complex containing histone deacetylase activity, which actively inhibits transcription. The binding of ligand triggers a conformational change in the TR that results in the replacement of the corepressor complex by a coactivator complex containing histone acetyltransferase activity, through which the chromatin structure is remodeled, thereby leading to activation of transcription. In addition, the finding that several TR-interacting coregulators act more directly on the basal transcriptional machinery suggests that mechanisms independent of histone acetylation and deacetylation also are involved in TR action.

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