Data from the first 2 waves of the Caregiver Health Effects Study (n = 680) were analyzed to examine the effects of changes in caregiving involvement on changes in caregiver health-related outcomes in a population-based sample of elders caring for a disabled spouse. Caregiving involvement was indexed by levels of (a) spouse physical impairment, (b) help provided to the spouse, and (c) strain associated with providing help. Health-related outcomes included perceived health, health-risk behaviors, anxiety symptoms, and depression symptoms. Increases in spouse impairment and caregiver strain were generally related to poorer outcomes over time (poorer perceived health, increased health-risk behaviors, and increased anxiety and depression), whereas increased helping was related to better outcomes (decreased anxiety and depression). Results suggest that caring for a disabled spouse is a complex phenomenon that can have both deleterious and beneficial consequences.