To evaluate the role of 6 human herpesviruses (cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6), herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 and varicella zoster virus (VZV)) in infections of the nervous system, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 662 patients with suspected viral aetiology to neurological symptoms were investigated for presence of herpesviral DNA in a PCR-based study. Of the 69 patients (2 patients had 2 herpesvirus DNA detected in CSF) who had herpesvirus DNA detected in the CSF, 60 (87%) were non-immunocompromised (CMV 7; HHV-6 6; EBV 16; HSV-1 18; HSV-2 9 and VZV 6) and 9 (13%) were immunocompromised (CMV 3; HHV-6 0; EBV 5; HSV-1 0; HSV-2 1 and VZV 0). The study was performed in a retrospective/prospective manner. The HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV and CMV DNA-positive patients usually had typical clinical syndromes, such as encephalitis/myelitis and meningitis, but also other neurological conditions were associated with findings of these viruses. HHV-6 and EBV DNA were detected in patients presenting with a variety of neurological symptoms, and in some of the cases, concurrent with diagnosis of other infections of the central nervous system. Despite the overall variability of clinical conditions seen, a pattern associated with each investigated herpesvirus was discernable as regards clinical presentation.