Apart from acting on hemopoietic progenitor cells, colony stimulating factors (CSFs) have been shown to be involved in the activation, survival, proliferation and differentiation of more mature cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. There is evidence that a proportion of human peripheral blood monocytes can proliferate in response to CSF-1, (also known as M-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage-CSF (GM-CSF). CSFs have been shown to be at elevated levels in the synovial fluid of RA patients and thus local proliferation of monocyte/macrophage within an inflamed lesion may contribute to the local tissue hyperplasia evident in inflammatory conditions. Flow cytometric analysis of surface antigen expression and cytokine production in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation has been used to characterise the proliferating subpopulation of monocytes. Further characterization and subsequent isolation of this subpopulation of monocytes may provide new and important information necessary in understanding inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, where local proliferation at the site of inflammation may be a key factor contributing to the chronicity of the disease.