Despite the high incidence of prostate cancer, only limited data are available on genes or chromosomes specifically involved in its initiation and progression. We have applied comparative genomic hybridization to routinely processed, paraffin-embedded, tissues at different times in prostatic tumor progression to screen the tumor genome for gains and losses. Our panel included specimens derived from 56 different patients: 23 patients with primary, prostate-confined carcinomas; 18 patients with regional lymph node metastases; and 15 patients with distant metastases. Chromosome arms that most frequently showed losses, included 13q (55%), 8p (48%), 6q (43%), 5q (32%), 16q (25%), 18q (20%), 2q (18%), 4q (18%), 10q (18%), and Y (16%). Gains were often seen of chromosome arms 8q (36%), 17q (23%), Xq (23%), 7q (21%), 3q (18%), 9q (18%), 1q (16%), Xp (16%). Furthermore, specific high-level amplifications, eg, of 1q21, 1q25, and Xq12 to q13, were found in metastatic cancers. A significant accumulation of genetic changes in distant metastases was observed, eg, loss of 10q (p = 0.03) and gain of 7q (p = 0.03) sequences. In addition, investigation of a potential biomarker identified in previous studies by our group, ie, extra copies of #7 and/or #8, revealed a high prevalence of 7pq and/or 8q gain in the distant metastases (p = 0.02). Importantly, gains were observed more frequently in tumors derived from progressors after radical prostatectomy, than in nonprogressors (mean time of follow-up, 74 months). Specifically, gain of chromosome 7pq and/or 8q sequences appeared an accurate discriminator between the progressors and nonprogressors. Multivariate analysis showed a significant correlation between progressive disease and the number of chromosomes with gains. This correlation also held true when stage (p = 0.007) or grade (p = 0.002) were taken into account. Likewise, this applied for gain of chromosome 7pq and/or 8q sequences (p = 0.03 and p = 0.005 for stage or grade, respectively). Additionally, an increase in the number of chromosomes with gains per case was related to a decrease in biochemical progression-free survival (Ptrend <0.001). More specifically, the gain of 7pq and/or 8q sequences markedly reduced the biochemical progression-free survival (p < 0.001). In conclusion, this study has, firstly, documented the spectrum of chromosomal alterations in subsequent stages of prostate cancer, a number of which had not been described previously. It allowed us to identify chromosomal regions related to advanced tumor stage, ie, loss of 10q24 and gain of 7q11.2 and/or 7q31 sequences. Secondly, gain of 7pq and/or 8q was identified as a potential genetic discriminator between progressors and nonprogressors after radical surgery.