Parental smoking, CYP1A1 genetic polymorphisms and childhood leukemia (Québec, Canada)

Cancer Causes Control. 2000 Jul;11(6):547-53. doi: 10.1023/a:1008976116512.


Objective: To evaluate the effect of parental smoking on childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and to determine if it is modified by child genetic polymorphisms.

Methods: We carried out a case-control study in Quebec, Canada, including 491 incident cases aged 0-9 years and as many healthy controls matched on age and sex. Each parent was interviewed separately with respect to smoking habits during and after pregnancy. In addition, we carried out a case-only substudy with 158 cases classified according to presence or absence of the alleles *2A, *2B, and *4 in the CYP1A1 gene.

Results: There were small risk increases with maternal smoking during the later trimesters. Interaction odds ratios were increased (although often not significantly) for the CYP1A1*4 allele at high levels of maternal smoking in the last trimesters and at low level of paternal postnatal smoking, and decreased for the CYP1A1*2B allele. The latter appeared to confer a protective advantage at low levels for maternal prenatal smoking and at high levels for paternal postnatal smoking.

Conclusions: Reported smoking habits showed no association with leukemia; risks for genetic polymorphisms lacked precision but indicated that the effect of parental smoking could be modified by variant alleles in the CYP1A1 gene.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alleles
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 / genetics*
  • Fathers
  • Female
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Odds Ratio
  • Polymorphism, Genetic
  • Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / enzymology
  • Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / etiology*
  • Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics*
  • Pregnancy
  • Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
  • Quebec / epidemiology
  • Smoking* / epidemiology
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution / adverse effects


  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1