Immunorestitution disease involving the innate and adaptive response

Clin Infect Dis. 2000 Jun;30(6):882-92. doi: 10.1086/313809. Epub 2000 Jun 20.


Immunorestitution disease (IRD) is defined as an acute symptomatic or paradoxical deterioration of a (presumably) preexisting infection that is temporally related to the recovery of the immune system. We report the temporal sequence of events that led to IRD caused by Pneumocystis carinii and Aspergillus terreus in 2 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients soon after the recovery of adaptive and innate immunity, respectively, and we review episodes noted in the English-language literature that fit the definition of IRD (109 episodes in 107 patients). The median time from the recovery of neutrophil counts or termination of steroid therapy to the development of IRD was 8 days in cases of pulmonary aspergillosis (23 episodes) and hepatosplenic candidiasis (8) and 21 days for viral diseases such as hepatitis B (24) and viral pneumonitis (6). For IRD due to mycobacteriosis (27 episodes) and cryptococcosis (4) in HIV-positive patients, the median interval between the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and the onset of IRD was 11 days; for viral infections, including those due to cytomegalovirus (14), hepatitis B virus (1), and hepatitis C virus (2), the median interval was 42 days. As an emerging clinical entity, IRD merits further study to optimize treatment of immunosuppressed patients.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aspergillosis / immunology*
  • Aspergillosis / microbiology
  • Aspergillus / immunology*
  • Bone Marrow Transplantation / immunology
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / immunology
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Active*
  • Immunity, Innate*
  • Immunocompromised Host
  • Lung Diseases, Fungal / immunology
  • Lung Diseases, Fungal / microbiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pneumocystis / immunology*
  • Pneumonia, Pneumocystis / immunology*
  • Pneumonia, Pneumocystis / microbiology