While women and their doctors have traditionally worried about mortality from breast and gynecological malignancies, over the past 5 years they have come to realize that ischemic cardiac disease (IHD) is the number one killer of women in most Western countries. This has led to public and professional education campaigns and a new emphasis on gender and gender-specific research in IHD. Unfortunately, this literature remains poorly developed and much work remains to be done. Even in samples in which there may be sufficient numbers to allow for the evaluation of gender and gender differences, these important analyses have often been overlooked. This article provides a review of what is known about gender and gender differences in psychosocial and behavioral issues in IHD.