Behavioral activating effects of adrafinil in aged canines

Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2000 Jun;66(2):293-300. doi: 10.1016/s0091-3057(00)00188-x.


Adrafinil, a vigilance enhancing pharmaceutical, was administered to aged dogs for 14 consecutive days at doses of 10, 20, 30, or 40 mg/kg using a crossover design. The effects on spontaneous behavior in a 10-min canine open-field test were systematically recorded every fourth day, starting with day 1 of treatment. The open field tests were given 2 or 10 h following oral administration of capsules containing either adrafinil or lactose, the placebo control. Adrafinil caused an increase in locomotor activity at the three highest doses at both the 2- and 10-h intervals and during both the first (days 1 and 5) and second treatment week (days 9 and 13). Adrafinil also caused a transient increase in directed sniffing. At the highest dose level, adrafinil caused a decrease in urination frequency. The increased locomotion was generally unaccompanied by stereotypical behavior in the test session. There was some variability; a subpopulation of animals showed either no effect, or decreased locomotion. The individual differences were correlated with changes in serum levels of adrafinil 10 h following treatment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aging / psychology*
  • Animals
  • Behavior, Animal / drug effects*
  • Benzhydryl Compounds / blood
  • Central Nervous System Stimulants / administration & dosage
  • Central Nervous System Stimulants / blood
  • Central Nervous System Stimulants / pharmacology*
  • Dogs
  • Female
  • Hydroxamic Acids / administration & dosage
  • Hydroxamic Acids / blood
  • Hydroxamic Acids / pharmacology*
  • Locomotion / drug effects
  • Male
  • Modafinil


  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Central Nervous System Stimulants
  • Hydroxamic Acids
  • benzyhydrylsulfinylacetic acid
  • adrafinil
  • Modafinil