This statement provides new recommendations for targeted tuberculin testing and treatment regimens for persons with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and updates previously published guidelines (1,2). This statement is issued in recognition of the importance of these activities as an essential component of the TB Elimination Strategy promoted by the U.S. Public Health Service Advisory Council on the Elimination of Tuberculosis, and reports the deliberations of expert consultants convened by the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Isoniazid for 6-12 mo has been the mainstay of treatment for LTBI in the United States for more than 30 yr. However, the application of isoniazid for LTBI has been limited because of poor adherence, due to the relatively long duration of treatment required, and because of concerns about toxicity. Therefore, there has been interest in the development of shorter, rifampin-based regimens as alternatives to isoniazid for the treatment of LTBI. During the past decade, a series of studies of "short-course" treatment of LTBI in persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been undertaken. The results of these trials have recently become available, and the in-depth analyses of these and prior studies of isoniazid form the scientific basis of the treatment guidelines presented in this report. In addition, many changes to previous recommendations regarding testing for and treatment of LTBI are presented (Table 1).