Background: The measure for self-efficacy barriers to exercise was developed for adults and revised on the basis of quantitative and qualitative research with older adults so it would be more appropriate for that age group.
Objectives: To test the reliability and validity of the Self-Efficacy for Exercise (SEE) Scale.
Methods: Initial reliability and validity testing was performed using a sample of 187 older adults living in a continuing care retirement community. The average age of the participants was 85 +/- 6.2 years, and most were White (98%), female (82%), and unmarried (80%). Face-to-face interviews were completed and included the SEE, the 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12), and the Expected Outcomes and Barriers for Habitual Exercise scale. Exercise activity was based on verbal report of participation in aerobic exercise (walking, swimming, biking, or jogging).
Results: There was sufficient evidence of internal consistency (alpha = 0.92), and a squared multiple correlation coefficient using structural equation modeling provided further evidence of reliability (R2 ranged from 0.38 to 0.76). There was evidence of validity of the measure based on hypothesis testing: Mental and physical health scores on the SF-12 predicted efficacy expectations, and efficacy expectations predicted exercise activity. Lambda X estimates (all estimates > or = 0.81) provided further evidence of validity.
Conclusion: Preliminary testing provided evidence for the reliability and validity of the SEE scale. Future testing of the scale needs to be done with young old adults and subjects from different socioeconomic and cultural groups.