In an in vitro study, Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (LT) was shown to directly affect activated CD4(+) T cells and support interleukin (IL)-5 production in IL-4-deficient (IL-4(-/-)) mice, whereas cholera toxin (CT) did not. Both LT and CT enhanced B7-2 expression on B cells and macrophages. These effects were not influenced by CD40-CD40 ligand cosignaling. Addition of LT- or CT-treated antigen-presenting cells to anti-CD3-triggered CD4(+) T cells resulted in the induction of T cell proliferative responses. Further, these responses were inhibited by anti-B7-2 monoclonal antibody. Cocultivation of CD4(+) T cells with LT- or CT-treated antigen-presenting cells and anti-CD3 enhanced Th1- and IL-4-mediated Th2-type cytokine production. The results from in vitro studies were supported by in vivo studies in IL-4(-/-) mice, in which LT induced mucosal IgA responses but CT did not. Thus, although both LT and CT induce mucosal adjuvant responses via IL-4-dependent Th2-type responses, LT also elicits Th1- and IL-4-independent Th2-type responses.