The aim of this study was to compare the efficiencies of six reference laboratories for serologic testing for celiac disease. Serum from 20 patients with untreated celiac disease and from 20 controls was thawed, divided, and distributed to each participating laboratory, which performed endomysial antibody tests. Five laboratories also performed antigliadin antibody tests. Sensitivity for endomysial antibody immunoglobulin A (IgA) varied from 57 to 90%. In all laboratories, the specificity for celiac disease was 100%. The sensitivity and specificity for both IgA and IgG antigliadin antibody varied significantly. When results from all three tests were combined in each laboratory, sensitivity was 90 to 100%. The specificity for endomysial antibody was 100% in the laboratories. Sensitivity was less than reported previously. Standardization of these tests is needed in the United States.