To identify the prevalent Leishmania species in Bangladesh, a total of nine patients aged 4-35 years, were studied; six (66.7%) of them were below 20 years of age. All the patients were clinically diagnosed to have visceral leishmaniasis; their haematological profile was in accordance with leishmaniasis and all were improved after treatment with sodium stibogluconate. All the aspirated materials (eight bone marrows and one splenic aspirate) yielded growth of Leishmania parasite in NNN media; Leishman-Donovan bodies were found in seven (77.8%) of them in a Giemsa stained smear. Aldehyde test (AT) was positive in all the nine cases examined, whereas, complement fixation test (CFT) was positive in seven (77.8%) and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) in eight (88.9%) cases. In this study, five of the nine isolates from kala-azar patients were characterised by isoenzyme analysis comparing with five WHO reference strains viz., Leishmania (Leishmania) donovani (DD8), L.(L.) donovani (HU3), L.(L.) infantum (IPT-1), L.(L.) tropica (K-27) and L.(L.) major (5-ASKH) using cellulose acetate electrophoresis. By analysing 11 soluble isoenzymes it was found that all five WHO reference strains had distinct electrophoretic mobility of the isoenzymes studied. No interspecies difference was observed amongst the five isolates from kala-azar patients examined and their isoenzyme profiles were consistent with WHO reference strain of L.(L.) donovani (DD8) but different from L.(L.) donovani (HU3).