This review is focused on organizational aspects of stress reduction. Theoretical models are presented. The association with a few health outcomes (cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal disorders, and functional gastrointestinal illness) is examined. A few examples of evaluations of health consequences of improved work organization are introduced. Realistic expectations are discussed against the background of etiologic fractions. Concepts like psychological demands, decision latitude, social support, and effort-reward balance or imbalance are discussed and related to practical reorganizational efforts.