The occurrence of polycystic echinococcosis (PE) caused by Echinococcus vogeli in Suriname is reviewed. Six of the eight known cases, including the first (which was incorrectly diagnosed as cystic hydatid disease caused by E. granulosus) in 1982, are described. The distribution in Suriname of the natural hosts of E. vogeli--the bush dog (Speothus venaticus) and the paca (Agouti paca)--is discussed. Characteristics of the four species recognized in the genus Echinococcus are compared, and all known cases of PE in 11 countries in the Neotropics are summarized. Finally, it is stressed, that, in Suriname, PE should be considered during the differential diagnosis of all subjects from rural areas who present with abdominal pain and palpable, intraperitoneal masses.