A total of forty-three simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified in the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata. The most common SSR was the dinucleotide (TG)n/(CA)n occurring in thirty of the forty-three microsatellite loci. Polymorphism at ten dinucleotide markers was investigated in 122 flies from six natural populations sampled in the native and colonized areas. A very high level of allelic diversity was detected in the species range. An average of 13.6 alleles was found over all the ten loci indicating the informativeness of SSRs as genetic markers for the medfly. The distribution of microsatellite polymorphism in the species range reflects the medfly colonization history.