The integration ladder: a tool for curriculum planning and evaluation

Med Educ. 2000 Jul;34(7):551-7. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2923.2000.00697.x.


Integration has been accepted as an important educational strategy in medical education. Discussions about integration, however, are often polarized with some teachers in favour and others against integrated teaching. This paper describes 11 points on a continuum between the two extremes. * Isolation * Awareness * Harmonization * Nesting * Temporal co-ordination * Sharing * Correlation * Complementary * Multi-disciplinary * Inter-disciplinary * Trans-disciplinary As one moves up the ladder, there is less emphasis on the role of disciplines, an increasing requirement for a central curriculum, organizational structure and a requirement for greater participation by staff in curriculum discussions and planning. The integration ladder is a useful tool for the medical teacher and can be used as an aid in planning, implementing and evaluating the medical curriculum.

MeSH terms

  • Curriculum*
  • Education, Medical, Undergraduate / methods*
  • Humans
  • Interprofessional Relations
  • Planning Techniques
  • Program Evaluation
  • Teaching / methods
  • United Kingdom