Topically applied recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB (becaplermin) is a new pharmacologically active therapy for chronic, neuropathic, lower extremity diabetic ulcers. In previous studies, becaplermin gel was administered once daily but dressings were changed twice daily. In the present study of 134 patients with diabetes mellitus and full thickness lower extremity ulcers, dressings were changed only once per day, simplifying the treatment regimen. Efficacy criteria included the percentage of patients achieving complete healing within the 20-week treatment period, the time to achieve complete healing, the rate of ulcer recurrence during the 6-month period following healing, and treatment compliance. Complete healing of ulcers was achieved in 57. 5% of patients, with a mean time to closure of 63 days and a recurrence rate of 21% at 6 months. Of the potential factors affecting ulcer healing, only drug compliance (p < 0.001), dressing compliance (p < 0.01), the presence of infection (p < 0.01), baseline ulcer area (p < 0.05), and baseline total wound evaluation score (p < 0.05) were significantly associated with healing. Results of this study further confirm the efficacy and safety of becaplermin gel for the treatment of lower extremity diabetic ulcers.