Carcinoid and pancreatic endocrine tumors: recent advances in molecular pathogenesis, localization, and treatment

Curr Opin Oncol. 2000 Jul;12(4):368-77. doi: 10.1097/00001622-200007000-00015.


Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids and pancreatic endocrine tumors, which share a number of common features in their pathology, ability to cause clinical symptoms due to ectopic hormone and bioamine release, localization methods, and treatment. Although generally slow growing, a proportion demonstrate aggressive tumor growth. Therefore, in many cases treatment must be directed against both the tumor and the hormone-excess state. There have been significant recent advances into their molecular pathogenesis, natural history, and prognostic factors; clinical presentation defined by larger series analysis; localization methods; and the development of new treatments directed against the tumor and to control the hormone-excess state (including depot somatostatin analogues, interferon combinations, embolization, chemoembolization, radiotherapy with novel somatostatin analogues, and liver transplantation). Recent advances in each of these areas are briefly discussed.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Carcinoid Tumor* / diagnosis
  • Carcinoid Tumor* / etiology
  • Carcinoid Tumor* / therapy
  • Carcinoma, Islet Cell* / diagnosis
  • Carcinoma, Islet Cell* / etiology
  • Carcinoma, Islet Cell* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms* / diagnosis
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms* / etiology
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms* / therapy