To determine whether human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) coreceptors besides CXCR4 and CCR5 are involved in HIV-1 infection of the thymus, we focused on CCR8, a receptor for the chemokine I-309, because of its high expression in the thymus. Similar levels of CCR8 mRNA were detected in immature and mature primary human thymocytes. Consistent with this, [(125)I]I-309 was shown to bind specifically and with similar affinity to the surface of immature and mature human thymocytes. Fusion of human thymocytes with cells expressing HIV-1 X4 or X4R5 envelope glycoprotein was inhibited by I-309 in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, I-309 partially inhibited productive infection of human thymocytes by X4, R5, and X4R5 HIV-1 strains. Our data provide the first evidence that CCR8 functions as an HIV-1 coreceptor on primary human cells and suggest that CCR8 may contribute to HIV-1-induced thymic pathogenesis.