We investigated 191 patients with oral cancer (121 males and 70 females) and 121 non oral cancer patients (69 males and 52 females), both groups with a history of alcohol use. Blood was analyzed with aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH 2) and glutathione S-transferase M 1 (GSTM 1) genotyping. ALDH 2 genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method and GSTM 1 genotyping was amplified with PCR using GSTM 1 specific primers. In the oral cancer group, the alcohol-drinking rate (59.7%) was significantly higher than in the non cancer group (alcohol-drinking rate 27.3%, p < 0.01). The incidence of inactive ALDH 2 and GSTM 1 in the cancer group with an alcohol-drinking habit was 34.2 and 67.5% and was higher than in the non cancer group with an alcohol-drinking habit (15.1, 45.5%).