The Drosophila takeout gene is a novel molecular link between circadian rhythms and feeding behavior

Cell. 2000 Jun 9;101(6):647-56. doi: 10.1016/s0092-8674(00)80876-4.


We report the characterization of a novel Drosophila circadian clock-regulated output gene, takeout (to). The to amino acid sequence shows similarity to two ligand binding proteins, including juvenile hormone binding protein. to mRNA is expressed in the head and the cardia, crop, and antennae-structures related to feeding. to expression is induced by starvation, which is blocked in all arrhythmic central clock mutants, suggesting a direct molecular link between the circadian clock and the feeding/starvation response. A to mutant has aberrant locomotor activity and dies rapidly in response to starvation, indicating a link between locomotor activity, survival, and food status. We propose that to participates in a novel circadian output pathway that conveys temporal and food status information to feeding-relevant metabolisms and activities.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Circadian Rhythm / genetics*
  • Drosophila / physiology*
  • Drosophila Proteins*
  • Feeding Behavior / physiology*
  • Gene Expression Regulation / physiology
  • Genes, Insect*
  • Insect Proteins / genetics*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • RNA, Messenger / analysis
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • Sequence Alignment


  • Drosophila Proteins
  • Insect Proteins
  • RNA, Messenger
  • TO protein, Drosophila

Associated data

  • GENBANK/AF261748