Respiration effects and cardiac pulsatility can induce signal modulations in functional MR image time series that increase noise and degrade the statistical significance of activation signals. A simple image-based correction method is described that does not have the limitations of k-space methods that preclude high spatial frequency correction. Low-order Fourier series are fit to the image data based on time of each image acquisition relative to the phase of the cardiac and respiratory cycles, monitored using a photoplethysmograph and pneumatic belt, respectively. The RETROICOR method is demonstrated using resting-state experiments on three subjects and compared with the k-space method. The method is found to perform well for both respiration- and cardiac-induced noise without imposing spatial filtering on the correction. Magn Reson Med 44:162-167, 2000.
Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.