Collagenase-3 (MMP-13) and integral membrane protein 2a (Itm2a) are marker genes of chondrogenic/osteoblastic cells in bone formation: sequential temporal, and spatial expression of Itm2a, alkaline phosphatase, MMP-13, and osteocalcin in the mouse

J Bone Miner Res. 2000 Jul;15(7):1257-65. doi: 10.1359/jbmr.2000.15.7.1257.


Endochondral bone formation requires the action of cells of the chondrocytic and osteoblastic lineage, which undergo continuous differentiation during this process. To identify subpopulations of resting, proliferating, and hypertrophic chondrocytes and osteoblasts involved in bone formation, we have identified here two novel marker genes present in endochondral and intramembranous ossification. Using Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization on parallel sections of murine embryos and bones of newborn mice we compared the expression pattern of the recently cloned Itm2a and MMP-13 (collagenase-3) genes with that of established marker genes for bone formation, such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC), and collagen type X, during endochondral and intramembranous ossification. During embryonic development expression of Itm2a and ALP was detectable at midgestation (11.5 days postcoitum [dpc]) and increased up to 16.5 dpc. MMP-13 and OC expression started at 14.5 dpc and 16.5 dpc, respectively. This temporal expression was reflected in the spatial distribution of these markers in the growth plate of long bones. In areas undergoing endochondral ossification Itm2a expression was found in chondrocytes of the resting and the proliferating zones. Expression of ALP and MMP-13 are mutually exclusive: ALP transcripts were found only in collagen type X positive hypertrophic chondrocytes of the upper zone. MMP-13 expression was restricted to chondrocytes of the lower zone of hypertrophic cartilage also expressing collagen type X. In osteoblasts involved in endochondral and intramembranous ossification Itm2a was not present. ALP, MMP-13, and OC were mutually exclusively expressed in these cells suggesting a differentiation-dependent sequential expression of ALP, MMP-13, and OC. The identification of the continuum of sequential expression of Itm2a, ALP, MMP-13, and OC will now allow us to establish a series of marker genes that are highly suitable to characterize bone cells during chondrocytic and osteoblastic differentiation in vivo.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alkaline Phosphatase / genetics*
  • Animals
  • Chondrocytes / cytology*
  • Chondrocytes / metabolism
  • Collagen / genetics
  • Collagenases / genetics*
  • Embryo, Mammalian
  • Embryonic and Fetal Development
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental*
  • Genetic Markers
  • Gestational Age
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 13
  • Membrane Proteins / genetics*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Osteoblasts / cytology*
  • Osteoblasts / metabolism
  • Osteocalcin / genetics*
  • Osteogenesis / genetics*
  • Transcription, Genetic


  • Genetic Markers
  • Itm2a protein, mouse
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Osteocalcin
  • Collagen
  • Alkaline Phosphatase
  • Collagenases
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 13
  • Mmp13 protein, mouse