We studied the efficiency of recurrent selection based solely on marker genotypes (marker-based selection), in order to increase favourable allele frequency at 50 previously detected quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Two selection procedures were investigated, using computer simulations: (1) Truncation Selection (MTS), in which individuals are ranked based on marker score, and best individuals are selected for recombination; and (2) QTL Complementation Selection (QCS), in which individuals are selected such that their QTL composition complements those individuals already selected. Provided QTL locations are accurate, marker-based selection with a population size of 200 was very effective in rapidly increasing frequencies of favourable QTL alleles. QCS methods were more effective than MTS for improving the mean frequency and fixation of favourable QTL alleles. Marker-based selection was not very sensitive to a reduction in population size, and appears valuable to optimize the use of molecular markers in recurrent selection programmes.