Rapid detection of specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against bovine leukemia virus

J Virol Methods. 1999 Oct;82(2):129-36. doi: 10.1016/s0166-0934(99)00092-0.


ELISA and Western blot have been used for detecting specific antibodies or antigens for routine diagnostic laboratory tests and experimental protocols, as well as for screening hybridomas secreting antibodies. Although these techniques are sensitive, some slow growing hybridomas are identified as positive only when they are grown slowly long time. We standardized the dot-ELISA, a more sensitive technique, for the detection of antibodies against BLV. The main advantages of the dot-ELISA described in this study are (a) its sensitivity, detecting hybridomas which would otherwise be considered negative and discarded from the results of indirect ELISA and/or Western blot; and (b) the possibility of economizing reagents using as little as 1 microl of the antigen and 0.5 microl of antibody and conjugate. Different BLV-antigen preparations were bound to nitrocellulose membranes (NC), including cells lysed chemically (LYS) or by sonication (SOC), semi-purified virus (PV), and supernatant from infected cultures, either without treatment (SUP) or sonicated (SOS). The antigen preparations most adequate for detecting monoclonal antibodies against BLV and polyclonal antibodies in cattle sera were undiluted cell lysates (LYS) and semi-purified BLV (PV). When testing bovine sera, the supernatant (SUP) and sonicated supernatant (SOS) antigens gave a high background due to the presence of FCS which reacted with the anti-bovine labeled antibodies. In this study, 59 BLV specific antibody secreting hybridomas were identified using the dot-ELISA, compared to only 20 detected using iELISA, and doubtful reactions due to nonspecific binding to fetal calf serum (FCS) and cellular components were measured. The results of the improved dot-ELISA described may be stored at room temperature for future reference. Results were consistently reproducible in coated nitrocellulose membranes kept at different storage temperatures (-20 degrees C, 4 degrees C, and 25-30 degrees C) 48 h, 1 week and 5 months.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / analysis*
  • Antibodies, Viral / analysis*
  • Antibodies, Viral / blood
  • Antibody Specificity*
  • Antigens, Viral / immunology
  • Antigens, Viral / isolation & purification
  • Blotting, Western
  • Cattle
  • Collodion
  • Enzootic Bovine Leukosis / diagnosis
  • Enzootic Bovine Leukosis / immunology
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay / economics
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay / methods*
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay / standards
  • Hybridomas
  • Immune Sera / immunology*
  • Immune Sera / isolation & purification
  • Leukemia Virus, Bovine / immunology*
  • Leukemia Virus, Bovine / isolation & purification
  • Microscopy, Immunoelectron
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Sonication
  • Temperature


  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Antigens, Viral
  • Immune Sera
  • Collodion