Enhanced tissue factor pathway activity and fibrin turnover in the alveolar compartment of patients with interstitial lung disease

Thromb Haemost. 2000 Jun;83(6):853-60.


Bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) from patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP; n = 35), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, n = 41) and sarcoidosis (SARC, n = 48) were investigated for alterations in the alveolar hemostatic balance. Healthy individuals (n = 21) served as Controls. Procoagulant activity (PCA), tissue factor (TF) activity and F VII activity were assessed by means of specific recalcification assays. The overall fibrinolytic activity (FA) was measured using the (125)I-labeled fibrin plate assay. Fibrinopeptide A (FP-A), D-Dimer, plasminogen activators (PA) of the urokinase (u-PA) or tissue type (t-PA), PA-inhibitor I (PAI-1) and alpha2-antiplasmin (alpha2-AP) were determined by ELISA technique. As compared to Controls, all groups with interstitial lung disease (ILD) displayed an increase in BALF PCA by approximately one order of magnitude, and this was ascribed to enhanced TF activity by >98%. Accordingly, F VII-activity was increased in all ILD groups, and elevated FP-A levels were noted. There was no significant difference in procoagulant activities between the different ILD entities, but the increase in TF was significantly correlated with deterioration of lung compliance. Overall fibrinolytic activity did not significantly differ between ILD entities and Controls, although some reduction in IPF subjects was observed. Nevertheless, changes in the profile of the different pro- and antifibrinolytic compounds were noted. U-PA, but not t-PA levels were significantly reduced in all ILD groups. alpha2-AP was markedly elevated throughout, whereas PAI-1 levels were lowered. As a balance of

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Alveolitis, Extrinsic Allergic / metabolism
  • Antifibrinolytic Agents / metabolism
  • Blood Coagulation Factors / metabolism
  • Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid / chemistry*
  • CD4-CD8 Ratio
  • Female
  • Fibrin / metabolism*
  • Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products / metabolism
  • Hemostatics / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Lung Compliance
  • Lung Diseases, Interstitial / metabolism*
  • Lymphocyte Count
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neutrophils
  • Pulmonary Fibrosis / metabolism
  • Sarcoidosis / metabolism
  • Thromboplastin / metabolism*


  • Antifibrinolytic Agents
  • Blood Coagulation Factors
  • Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products
  • Hemostatics
  • fibrin fragment D
  • Fibrin
  • Thromboplastin