Chloroquine can no longer be recommended as the first-line treatment for falciparum malaria in several parts of Africa, given the increasing resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to this drug. The sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine combination (SP) is obviously an alternative candidate, that has already been selected as first-line antimalarial treatment by a few African countries. However, the extent of resistance to SP appears to be highly variable within Africa. Therefore, we investigated the efficacy of SP to treat uncomplicated malaria attacks in children from south-east Gabon. Sixty-six children presenting with a P. falciparum malaria attack were given a standard regimen of SP, and were followed at Days 3, 7, 14, and 21. No RIII response was observed, but relatively high prevalences of RII (18.2%) and RI (12.1%) were present. Moreover, analysis of the clinical outcome according to CDC criteria showed that initial clinical response was lacking in 8.5% of children, and that clinical failure occurred in 9.1%.