Late total occlusion after intracoronary brachytherapy for patients with in-stent restenosis

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000 Jul;36(1):65-8. doi: 10.1016/s0735-1097(00)00681-1.


Objectives: The study sought to determine the incidence and predictors of late total occlusion (LTO, >30 days) in-patients with in-stent restenosis who were treated with intracoronary radiation.

Background: Intracoronary radiation both with beta and gamma emitters has been shown to reduce recurrent in-stent restenosis.

Methods: We reviewed the records of 473 patients who presented with in-stent restenosis and who were enrolled in various radiation protocols, whether randomized to placebo versus radiation or entered into registries. There were 165 placebo and 308 radiated patients, including both gamma and beta emitters. Maximum dose to the vessel wall was 30 to 55 Gy. Following radiation, all patients received antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and either ticlopidine or clopidogrel for one month. All patients completed at least six months of angiographic follow-up.

Results: The LTO was documented in 28 patients (9.1%) from the irradiated group versus 2 placebo patients (1.2%), p < 0.0001. The LTO rates were similar across studies and emitters. In the irradiated group, LTO presented as acute myocardial infarction in 12 patients (43%), unstable angina in 14 (50%), and asymptotic in 2 (7%). Mean time to LTO was 5.4 +/- 3.2 months in the irradiated group versus 4.5 +/- 2.1 in placebo patients (p = NS). The overall rate of restenting for the entire study group at the time of radiation was 48.6%. Importantly, new stents were placed in 82% of the irradiated and in 100% of the placebo patients who presented with LTO. Multivariate analysis determined that new stenting was the main predictor of LTO.

Conclusions: Intracoronary radiation for patients with in-stent restenosis is associated with a high rate of LTO. Restenting may contribute late thrombosis. Prolonged antiplatelet therapy (up to six months) should be considered for these patients.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary / adverse effects
  • Brachytherapy / adverse effects*
  • Coronary Angiography
  • Coronary Disease / diagnostic imaging
  • Coronary Disease / etiology*
  • Coronary Disease / therapy
  • Coronary Vessels / radiation effects*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prosthesis Failure*
  • Recurrence
  • Stents*
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Failure