Three dimensional preparatory trunk motion precedes asymmetrical upper limb movement

Gait Posture. 2000 Apr;11(2):92-101. doi: 10.1016/s0966-6362(99)00055-7.


Three-dimensional trunk motion, trunk muscle electromyography and intra-abdominal pressure were evaluated to investigate the preparatory control of the trunk associated with voluntary unilateral upper limb movement. The directions of angular motion produced by moments reactive to limb movement in each direction were predicted using a three-dimensional model of the body. Preparatory motion of the trunk occurred in three dimensions in the directions opposite to the reactive moments. Electromyographic recordings from the superficial trunk muscles were consistent with preparatory trunk motion. However, activation of transversus abdominis was inconsistent with control of direction-specific moments acting on the trunk. The results provide evidence that anticipatory postural adjustments result in movements and not simple rigidification of the trunk.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Arm / physiology*
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Electromyography
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Movement / physiology*
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiology