We describe a case of proven disseminated infection by Scedosporium prolificans in a profoundly neutropenic patient. The patient presented with a fever unresponsive to broad-spectrum antibiotics, endophthalmitis, respiratory failure and a renal abscess. The organism was isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and from pus obtained through a sterile puncture. Review of the English-language literature identified 28 additional cases; these occurred exclusively in severely neutropenic patients (predominantly leukaemia) and in transplant recipients. Apart from two or possibly three cases, dissemination was uniformly fatal due to persistent neutropenia and inherited resistance of these pathogens to currently available antifungal drugs. At present, the optimal treatment of S. prolificans infections is unknown, but reversal of the underlying deficient immune status appears of great importance.