Amino acid and biogenic amine changes were investigated in nephrectomized mice ten days postsurgery. Uremic mice exhibited changes in amino acid concentrations in plasma, urine and brain. Particularly plasma methionine, citrulline and arginine levels were significantly enhanced in nephrectomized mice compared to controls whereas serine was decreased. Urinary excretion of methionine, citrulline and alanine was higher in nephrectomized mice compared to controls whereas many amino acids were increased in brain of nephrectomized mice. Brain and urinary amino acid changes were more pronounced in the 75% than in the 50% nephrectomized mice. Brain norepinephrine and dopamine and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid were significantly increased whereas serotonin was decreased comparing the 75% nephrectomized mice to the sham-operated mice. This study demonstrates that at very early stages of renal insufficiency, specific amino acid and biogenic amine changes occur in plasma, urine and brain. These alterations might depend qualitatively and quantitatively on the degree of functional renal mass reduction.